: :inin Kyiv (EET)

Anniversary of the Budapest Memorandum: how Ukraine lost nuclear weapons


On 5 December 1994, three nuclear powers, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, and the United Kingdom signed the Budapest Memorandum.


Bill Clinton (USA), Boris Yeltsin (Russia) and Leonid Kravchuk (Ukraine) in January 1994 signed Trilateral Statement about Ukraine nuclear disarmament.

This memorandum provided security assurances by its signatories relating to Ukraine’s accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.


Boris Yeltsin (Russia), Bill Clinton (USA), Leonid Kuchma (Ukraine), John Major (UK) sign the Budapest Memorandum

 
 
According to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Ukraine removed and destroyed its nuclear weapon such as:

  • 130 Intercontinental ballistic missiles with 6 warheads for each.
  • 46 solid fuel Intercontinental ballistic missiles with 10 warheads for each, with a range of 11 000 km.
  • 25 Tu-95MS – large, four-engine turboprop-powered strategic bomber and missile platform.
  • 19 Tu-160 – supersonic, variable-sweep wing heavy strategic bomber. As for 2014 the world’s largest combat aircraft, largest supersonic aircraft and largest variable-sweep aircraft built.
  • 1080 long range nuclear cruise “air-to-surface” missiles.
  • Several hundred nuclear weapons from a variety of units.

Destruction of Tu-160 supersonic, variable sweep wingheavy strategic bomber


 

Destroyed air base in Stryy (Lviv region) where were based 260th Heavy Bomber Aviation Regiment

Destroyed air base in Stryy (Lviv region) where were based 260th Heavy Bomber Aviation Regiment

 
Destroyed missile launch facility (underground missile silo)
Ukraine: destroyed missile launch facility

Full text of Budapest Memorandum:

Budapest, 5 December 1994
 

The United States of America, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,

Welcoming the accession of Ukraine to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons as a non-nuclear-weapon State,

Taking into account the commitment of Ukraine to eliminate all nuclear weapons from its territory within a specified period of time,

Noting the changes in the world-wide security situation, including the end of the Cold War, which have brought about conditions for deep reductions in nuclear forces.

Confirm the following:

 

    1. The United States of America, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, reaffirm their commitment to Ukraine, in accordance with the principles of the CSCE Final Act, to respect the Independence and Sovereignty and the existing borders of Ukraine.

 

    1. The United States of America, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, reaffirm their obligation to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine, and that none of their weapons will ever be used against Ukraine except in self-defense or otherwise in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

 

    1. The United States of America, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, reaffirm their commitment to Ukraine, in accordance with the principles of the CSCE Final Act, to refrain from economic coercion designed to subordinate to their own interest the exercise by Ukraine of the rights inherent in its sovereignty and thus to secure advantages of any kind.

 

    1. The United States of America, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, reaffirm their commitment to seek immediate United Nations Security Council action to provide assistance to Ukraine, as a non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, if Ukraine should become a victim of an act of aggression or an object of a threat of aggression in which nuclear weapons are used.

 

    1. The United States of America, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, reaffirm, in the case of the Ukraine, their commitment not to use nuclear weapons against any non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, except in the case of an attack on themselves, their territories or dependent territories, their armed forces, or their allies, by such a state in association or alliance with a nuclear weapon state.

 

  1. The United States of America, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland will consult in the event a situation arises which raises a question concerning these commitments.

This Memorandum will become applicable upon signature.

Signed in four copies having equal validity in the English, Russian and Ukrainian languages.

 


Angela Merkel (Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety of Germany) and Yuriy Kostenko (Ministry for the Environment, and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine, head of workgroup of ratification START I ) in 1994

Washington experts (ex-ambassadors and politics) said the Budapest Memorandum gave no guarantees to Ukraine but “assurances”:

Inside Ukraine becoming stronger calls to cancel the Budapest Memorandum and resume nuclear status of Ukraine…

UaPositon

UaPositon

  • kutasyk

    Democratic party of the United States is inept and corrupt. However, I will never understand why Ukrainians in the US vote for them and then complain

    • PoeTentiate

      They think that they are preserving the peace by letting the strong kill the weak, and they are afraid of Putin.

  • Sven Plantin

    I did not know that UK was a signatory of this memorendum because i dont hear british prime minister a lot about the conflict in Ukraine.

  • Liubov Fodor

    Here we are! Trump is a present, Russians are in White House. Europe is fulled by Russian propaganda. Anyone knows how to stop Putin?

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